I wrote this ultimate guide as a reference for me and to share with you. The idea is to take all of the scientifically backed information and combine it to one location. It makes it easier for me as are reference and for you as well.


I got into organ meat because I knew they are safer and a better way to get high quality nutrition. 

I do believe in the mantra – “Food is medicine”.

I love how I feel after eating organ meat. And the best way to get the most out of it is to have a clean diet. I’ve been doing Keto for afew years and wanted to fine-tune my daily nutrition. It was a bit off putting by how companies are selling meal replacement powders with unpronounceable ingredients.


I really never paid attention to organ eating or knew liver was rich in nutrients. I love eating liver but only ate it if mom made it. My interest piqued again when I ran into companies selling liver capsules and other types of organ-based supplements.


When I took a multi-organ supplement within 30-40 minutes I felt  a burst of energy! It wasn’t a caffeine energy drink burst and then a crash but a consistent level of energy that slowly tapers off.

Organ Meat Is Making a ComEBack!

People are realizing its nutrient density and benefits for their bodies. Organ meat is seen as nature’s super food multivitamin. No need for expensive green powder mixes or extravagant B12 IV treatments. Nutrient dense foods like organ meat provide a wide spectrum of vitamins, nutrients,antioxidants, minerals and cofactors.

Get ready to fully understand how powerful organ meat can be. I changed my life when I started to eat it on a regular basis and feel an energy boost.


When I stop eating organ meat for a few days and get back on, I can feel a difference. Each body is different so use my experience as only a guide.


Organ and healthy eating is not a quick fix, maybe you will get a short-term edge drinking a Red Bull or some lab formulated meal replacement powder. But I’ll say this. I will win in the long run by keeping my diet clean and nutrient dense with quality grass fed and finished organ meat in my diet.

This guide is broken down into sections. You can directly goto a section by clicking on the section’s title. If you have any questions,comments or feedback, please leave a comment below!

What is Organ meat?

The 3 popular organ meats are liver, heart and kidney followed by eye, brains, spleen, trachea, lungs, tripe (stomach), testicles,etc. Pretty much most organs are edible for the adventurous.


For beginners start with liver and then expand to heart and kidneys.

Then challenge your mind and venture out. The exotic organshave been prepped for thousands of years. I am confident that each organ can beprepared to your liking.


Pre-European Organ Meat History In The United States

Back before European settlers set foot organ meat played a significant role in Native American diets. Not one part of the animal was wasted. They even scraped out the bone marrow. And for smaller bones, from animals such as fish or birds, they fermented the bones to eat.


The Native Americans, through thousands of trial and error discovered organ meat’s nutrient density and eventually how specific organs have unique health characteristics.

For Example:

1. The organ meat were part of a specific diet for parentstrying to conceive. Both parents were allocated more organ meat to boost eachparent’s nutrient profile so that they can increase their chances for a healthybaby.  

Remember how yourdoctor would recommend to take folic acid? Guess which food has the highestconcentrate of Folate? Liver.

2. The Native Americans has such a deep understanding, they used adrenal glands for their Vitamin C source especially for natives living in the ultra cold climates in locations that prevented them access to vitamin C rich fruits and seafood.


During WWII when muscle meat was rationed, the US government coordinated a marketing effort to convince the public to use organ meat in their everyday diet. It gained traction when it showed households how to camouflage organ meat by mixing it in popular dishes like meatloaf.


Unfortunately, the trend did not last. Soon after the war,muscle meat regained its foothold and organ meat was soon forgotten.


Today, organ meat is making a second coming fueled by the fast growing Paleo community along with the accessibility – you can find organ meats at Whole Foods in the USA where traditionally you would need to visit specialty butcher shops.


I understand why various green powder drinks are popular.You’re told that plants like kale, spinach and broccoli are healthy, but no one wants to eat them. Thus making a smoothie with green powder jacked up with sugar and carbs seems simple. The health benefits are neutralized with the added sugars.


There is a reason why a Mango smoothie or one with almond butter tastes great. It’s sugar. Just like your sweet tasting breakfast cereal promoting it’s fortified vitamins and minerals. It’s doesn’t make sense.


Organ meat will put any smoothie to shame in terms of nutrition.


Organ meat is packed with more vitamins than spinach and even kale. Liver is a super food rich in vitamins A, D,K, Iron, Phosphorus, Copper, Selenium and Choline.


And the vitamin B complex: B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6, B7 (biotin), B9 (folate) and B12. Nowadays B12 gets the limelight with the trendy B12 shots.


Don’t ignore the others, they all work together and play an important role. Even if you don’t end up adding organs in your diet, make sure you do get your daily vitamin B levels up topar.


Then you have “specialty” organs that have unique nutrients or minerals that other organs do not have. For example, CoQ10 found in hearts.

Liver is a great go to organ whenstarting out. Unlike the green drinks, liver has BOTH fat soluble vitamins (A, D,K and E) and water soluble vitamins (Vitamin B complex).

And, unlike the green powder drinks with it’s ingredients coming from many sources, Liver comes from onesource and your butcher knows it’s feeding method. There is a difference in nutrition quality when comparing a grass fed and finished meat versus one grain fed. More about that later.


Unknown to many people, certain organ meat is rich in Vitamin C. The Canadian Indians, who did not have access to vitamin rich foods like fruits because of their location near the arctic, ate adrenal glands to prevent scurvy.

A Vitamin is not a vitamin

Not all vitamins are the same. For example 10g of Vitamin C from citric acid doesn’t have the same efficacy compared to 10g of Vitamin C from Organ meat or any other natural food source. A lab created vitamin is drastically different from a natural source. You get more bangs for the buckgoing natural.




It’s all about the bioavailability. How much of synthetically created Citric Acid is absorbed by the body – 10%? 20%? How much would be absorbed from a natural source – 80%? 90%? Also don’t forget the co-factors and the macro and micronutrients you get from a natural source.


The TYPE of synthetically made compounds make a BIG difference. Each compound has different absorption rates and not many people know that.


This means that when you go to the drug store for Vitamin Ca 5,000 IU bottle may be better than a 10,000 based on the type of synthetic compound.

Nothing beats getting vitamins from whole foods. Keep that in mind the next time you're looking to improve your nutrient intake.


You cannot beat the nutrient density found in organ meat. Below is a chart that summarizes each vitamin’s nutrient profile followed by a detailed explanation.

Vitamin A 

Main Function – Fat-soluble Antioxidant that fights free radicals damage. Provides immune support ranging from colds to autoimmune diseases.

Helps With:

Inflammation – Protects body from several diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. 

Eye Health - Helps with eye health and may lower the risk of macular degeneration, one of the leading causes of vision loss.

Skin Elasticity - Shown to help with skin elasticity by keeping it smooth and tight.

Birth Defects - Prevents birth defects. Vitamin A is needed for embryonic development and organ formation during fetal development.

Brain Health - Helps with brain health related to memory storage and recovery. And with plasticity, allowing the brain’s neural systems adapt to broad and constantly changing environmental conditions.

Fat Soluble Vitamin - It’s part of the fat-soluble vitamins trifecta – Vitamins A, D and K that helps the body absorb and utilize minerals better.

Organ Meat With High Vitamin A: Liver

Vitamin K2

Main Function – An antioxidant that helps with bone building, blood clotting, protein activation just to name a few. The vitamin is fairly new and needs more research by the medical community as its benefits are pigeonholed due to the lack of academic research and interest.

Helps With:

Blood Clotting – Activates proteins to help with the process.

Mitochondria – Promotes energy production for the cell’s mitochondria. The mitochondria are the cell membranes that produces energy in the form of ATP. ATP powers the cell that includes synthesis of macromolecules including DNA and RNA.

Bone and Heart Health – Calcium supplementation for bone health may pose a risk for calcification in the heart’s arteries. Taking the right amount of K2 has shown to lower vascular damage risk by preventing calcium deposits on the artery’s walls.

Depression – A small study shows that Vitamin K2 helps with depression and anxiety.

Fat Soluble Vitamin - It’s part of the fat-soluble vitamins trifecta – Vitamins A, D and K that helps the body absorb and utilize minerals better.

Note: That there is Vitamin K1 found in plants and Vitamin K2 in animals. Researchers believe K2 is absorbed better because it’s a fat-soluble vitamin.

Organ Meats With High Vitamin K2: Beef Liver and Spleen with Kidney, Pancreas and Heart a close second.


Main Function – A mineral used to make hemoglobin, a red blood cells protein that carries oxygen throughout the body. 

Iron Types - Non-Heme Iron comes from plants. Heme iron comes from meats, which also have non-heme iron.

Helps With: 

Muscle Energy - Iron is used to make myoglobin, a protein that provides oxygen to muscles to help meet their high energy demands. Also used for hormone production.

Iron Deficiency Anemia – Prevents one of the most common global deficiencies. Symptoms are: weakness or tired, brain fog, immune issues, body temperature issues and swollen tongue.

Note: Please regulate your iron intake, too much can cause issues. 

Organ Meats With High Iron: Spleen has the highest with Liver in second followed by, Heart, Kidney


Main Function  - The second most abundant mineral in our body and just as important. It’s in every cell and most is found in the bones and teeth. Phosphorus helps with DNA and RNA development.

Helps With:  

Bone Health – Help with the formation of bones and teeth.

Cell Repair – Aids the body to make protein for growth along with cell and tissue repair.

ATP – Helps with ATP, the basis for the body’s energy production.

B Vitamin Complex – Helps in Kidney function, muscle contractions, normal heartbeat and nerve signaling.

Organ Meats With High Phosphorus by order: Beef Liver, with the rest of organ meats a close second. The Bone complex (marrow, bone and cartilage) is a good source for phosphorous.


Main Function  - Categorized as an essential nutrient for cell growth and fetal development. Most adult Americans are deficient. Other than, pregnant individuals, most people don’t experience any adverse health effects.

Helps With:

Cell Growth and Preservation – Choline helps produce key components for cell growth and maintenance.

Memory - Choline plays a key roll in memory function and overall brain health. A study shows young labs rats with reduced choline level performed poorly as older lab rats. And older lab rats with choline supplementation performed as well as young mice.

Fetal Development – Choline helps manage the stem cells’ life cycle and the embryo’s brain development. It appears it helps in decreasing the risk of neural tube defects.

Organ Health - A study shows that healthy adults subjected to a deprived choline diet saw about 78% of them develop signs of organ dysfunction – fatty liver or muscle damage. The damage was reverse with a high choline diet.

Breast Feeding – Choline demand is high during pregnancy and lactation. Sometimes the high demand for choline exceeds the body’s supply capability. Thus why choline intake during these times are increased.

Organ Meats With High Choline: Liver with Kidney, Spleen, Heart and Pancreas all a close second.

Other Minerals


Main Function  - A trace mineral that if eating a balanced diet, you should be getting your daily intake. Copper deficiency is uncommon. 

Helps With:  

Energy production

Iron metabolism

Connective tissue synthesis

Brain Development

Immune system

Organ Meats With High Copper: Liver


Main Function – A trace mineral where most people do not have a Selenium deficiency. One of it’s main purpose is to create antioxidants 

Helps With:

Reproduction Function

Thyroid Health 

DNA Synthesis

Protect Body from heavy metals poisoning

Organ Meats With High Selenium: Liver

Vitamin B (General Overview)

The Vitamin B complex comprises of 8 water-soluble vitamins and each function serves a specific purpose. Because these are water-soluble, the body stores a small amount. These vitamins need to be replenished daily.

In general the vitamin B complex helps with energy generation, DNA / RNA generation and repair, brain function and immune support. This is why you see those popular B12 shots popularized by athletes and expanded to people looking for immunity support. 

There’s more to that and the below section shows you that ALL of the Vitamin B complex is important and work together.

The 8 Vitamins Are:

B1 – Thiamin

B2 – Riboflavin

B3 – Niacin

B5 – Pantothenic Acid

B6 – Pyridoxine

B7 – Biotin

B9 – Folate aka Folic Acid

B12 - Cyanocobalamin

Organ Meats with High Vitamin B – There isn’t one organ meat that has a dominate position in terms of Vitamin B concentration. A combination of Liver, Heart and Kidney will give you adequate coverage. But if you had to pick one, I would go with Liver.

B1 – Thiamin

Energy - Helps convert carbohydrates into energy and plays a role in muscle contraction and delivery of nerve signals.

Brain Health - Research has shown that thiamin deficiency can lead to cognitive decline caused by oxidative stress of nerve cells, memory loss and reduce glucose metabolism which are risk factors to Alzheimer’s.

Eye Health – A study shows Thiamin’s relationship with eye health – higher levels of Thiamin decreased their chances for cataracts.

B2 – Riboflavin

Helps in red blood cell production, body growth and energy production.

DNA Health - Riboflavin acts as an antioxidant by fighting free radicals.  Many experts believe that B2 helps with DNA damage prevention caused by carcinogens.

Vitamin Conversion - It acts as a catalyst for Vitamin B6 and folate by changing them into forms that the body can use.

Eye Health - Early studies show that B2 is important to eye health and may prevent cataracts.

B3 – Niacin

Niacin helps with nerve function, skin maintenance, digestive system and converting food into energy (ATP) for cell to utilize. 

Enzymes - The body relies on B3 for over 400 enzymes

B5 – Pantothenic Acid 

Needed for body growth and a major contributor to hormone and cholesterol production. It also plays a major role in converting food into energy.

Hair Health - Different forms of Pantothenic Acid is used in commercial products. There is a study that shows it may help to prevent thinning hair.

B6 – Pyridoxine

Makes antibodies to help fight disease and help maintain nerve function. 

Brain Health - Studies show that B6 combined with other B vitamins helps with cognitive functions. It plays a major role in protein metabolism. 

Studies demonstrated a correlation between vitamin B6 and cognitive function in the elderly. The Boston Normative Aging Study found a relation between higher serum vitamin B6 concentrations and better memory test scores in 70 men aged 54–81 years. 

Enzymes - The body relies on B6 for over 100 enzymes reactions. 

Red Blood Cells - Helps with red blood cell creation.

B7 – Biotin

Needed for body growth and helps break down fats, proteins and carbohydrates in food. It aids in nerve signaling. 

Hair Health - There is a general perception that biotin helps to make hair healthier and nails stronger. There are small studies that show nail improvement but not enough for consensus. It does help with hair loss if you are biotin deficient. 

B9 – Folate and Folic Acid

Research shows that folate deficiency is highly prevalent. The deficiency is linked to cancer, anemia, cardiovascular diseases and neural tube defect during pregnancy.

Pregnancy – Help with embryo neurological development and helps prevent neural tube defect that is a birth defect to the brain or spine.

Mental Health – Study shows that people with low folate levels may be more likely to have depression.

Heart Health – Low Folic acid levels is linked lower homocysteine in the blood. This amino acid is linked to higher hear disease risk. Other studies show that folic acid along with other B vitamins helps prevent stroke.

Note: There is a difference between Folate and Folic acid. Folate is naturally occurring that you find in foods. Folic acids is synthesized and fortified into foods like cereal. It’s recommended to take the natural source – Folate.

B12 – Cyanocobalamin

Helps in the formation of red blood cell and supports the central nervous system. 

DNA - Helps with DNA formation

Prevents Anemia - Prevents megaloblastic anemia. This is when red blood cells are larger than normal.

Immune System / Energy – B12 helps in boosting the immune system and the body’s energy levels. These are the key traits that made B12 shots popular.

Deficiency - People are getting enough B12 via diet, the issue is absorption, up to 15% of the population have this issue. People over 50 are one of the susceptible groups for deficiency.

CoQ10- It’s one of the main engine drivers for cell growth, energy and maintenance and acts as a naturally antioxidant produced by the body. CoQ10 production decreases as you age.

Heart Health - Studies show that CoQ10 helps improve congestive heart failure symptoms and may reduce blood pressure.

Parkinson - Research also shows that it may help people with Parkinson disease – a nervous system disorder that affects movement.

Athleticism -  CoQ10 supplementation is shown to improve physical performance, but more studies are need for further clarity.

Antioxidant - The fat-soluble’s antioxidant characteristics have taken interest by the medical community.  For kidney disease, oxidative stress is a major contributor in diabetic kidney disease. Some studies show that high amounts of CoQ10 help in reducing oxidative stress. The study is small and more research is needed for conclusive evidence.

Inflammation - Diseases related to chronic, low-grade inflammation as also known as metabolic diseases are known to respond well to CoQ10. For example, patients with rheumatoid arthritis received 100 mg/day of CoQ10 for 2 months saw improvement.

Vitamin D

Main Function – 

Long known to help with bone development and improve the body’s absorption of calcium and phosphorous . And the Vitamin is getting a second look on how it helps with your immune system.

Helps with - 

Cancer – Research shows that Vitamin D along with Calcium may helps prevent certain cancers such as colon, prostate and breast cancer. Still more studies are needed to formulate a direct benefit because there are some studies that show a benefit and others that do not.

Cognitive health – One small dementia study shows that Vitamin D helps with cognitive health.

Sclerosis – Long-term vitamin D supplementation helps reduce the risk of multiple sclerosis.

Osteoporosis – Helps prevents the loss in bone density.

Muscle Function – Increased vitamin D levels increased protein synthesis and ARP concentration which leads to increase in physical performance.

Inflammation – Studies show that it helps with reduced muscle inflammation.

Depression – Studies are showing that depression and low Vitamin D are linked together.

Immunity – At the time this article was written, the Corona Virus (COVID-19) has become a global concern and the interest for immunity fortification increased drastically. In the Naturopathic world, the medical doctors were promoting Vitamin D as an important immunity contributor. And studies show Vitamin D’s direct relationship to immunity functions and the reduction in cold and flu. 

Vitamin D Absorption Factors

Geography Dependant - There are a lot of factors that affects your vitamin D levels:

Where you live: Northern parts (areas north of 37 degrees latitude) tend to have limited sunlight exposure.

Age – Older you get the less ability that your skin has to produce vitamin D. People over 65 generate 75% less vitamin D than they did in their 20s.

Skin Color – Darker the skin color usually means you have lower vitamin D levels.

Weight – Vitamin is stored in fat, thus obese people has less vitamin D circulating in the blood stream.

Vitamin D Deficiency problem 

Getting vitamin D just from your food source is not sufficient. Supplementation is recommended. Staying indoors, pollution, time of day, age and geographically location are contributing factors in Vitamin D absorption. Studies show that the average American diet get very little of the 4,000 – 5,000 IU of D3 everyday.

Over 75% Caucasian and over 90% of African Americans and Latinos are Vitamin D deficient.

The trend is not looking promising – deficiency rates have doubled from 1994 to 2004.

Recommended Intake for adults is 600 IU for Vitamin D and 800 IU for adults over 70 years old. There are other experts who recommend 1,500 to 2,000 IU.

Difference between D2 and D3

The common Vitamin D types are D2 and D3

D2 – Known as ergocalciferol and comes from plants such as mushrooms grown in UN light and fortified foods.

D3 – Known as cholecalciferol and comes from animals such as oily fish, liver, egg yolk and butter

Organ Meats With High Vitamin D3: Liver has traces of vitamin D.  The best is fish eggs. Or you can supplement your diet with cod liver, trout, salmon to get your full daily Vitamin D. 

You also can get Vitamin D through bone marrow and bone. You can ferment bone to get with edibility or try our bone marrow supplement. 


Liver - Liver is rich in Vitamin A, K, heme iron, phosphorus, copper, selenium and choline. Andpacked with the vitamin B complex: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12.


Heart - a rich source of CoQ10, protein, B2, B3, B12, selenium, phosphorous, zinc and several other B vitamins.  CoQ10 plays a key role in heart health,cell growth and acts as an antioxidant. It’s a great way to rack up amino acids that can improve metabolism and compounds that aid the production of collagen and elastin. Studies show improvement in physical performance when combined with selenium. You find both in the heart organ.


Kidney - rich in protein, omega 3 fats, selenium and the Vitamin B complex


Kidney is known to contain anti-inflammatory properties and act as an immunity booster.  It provides nutrients for heart, cell function and blood health.  It’s high in selenium and the vitamin B complex. Many people take Kidney as an antihistamine because of its DAO.


Pancreas - a rich source of digestive enzymes, antioxidants, omega 3 fats, vitamin B12, vitamin K,copper, and healthy mono- and polyunsaturated fats.


Spleen - a source of quality heme iron, B3, B12, vitamin C, selenium, protein and healthy fats. It provides blood health support. It’s one of the few organs with a substantial amount of Vitamin C.

How much Organ Meat Should I Eat?

This is an age old question with no correct answer. People such as Dr. Paul Saladino who advocates to eat organ meat consumes around 3-5 ounces of per day and higher during the weekend. Though he admits that his organ diet intake is probably in the top 1%. 

Most nutritional data analyzes organ meat at 100 grams. That equals to around 3.5 ounces of raw organ meat, which is about the size of an adult male’s hand spread out. This amount covers a substantial amount of vitamins and nutrients.

If you eat clean already and buying high quality foods (GMO free, organic) you probably can get away with 1-2 ounces organ meat per day. Or at least have a larger serving a few times a week if you can’t do it everyday.

Also take it up a notch – rotate your meat selection so you’re able to benefit from each of the organ’s health properties. For example, the CoQ10 found in heart.

Do you have to eat organs everyday? Again, it depends on your current diets and needs. It’s not a magic bullet if you eat liver everyday but still load up on pancakes, chocolate cake and hamburgers. Eating organ meat is one piece in changing your diet, if not your lifestyle, as a whole.


In the beginning of this article I gave a brief intro about Dr. Weston Price and his book, Physical and Nutritional Degeneration.


It’s a meaty book over 500 pages. It chronicles hisadventures throughout the globe in search of the perfect diet. Before hisexpeditions, he thought a vegetarian diet would prevail, his finding showedotherwise. He observed around 11 cultures and consistently found that healthyhigh fat diets from whole foods prevailed.


He was a practicing dentist strongly believed that mouthhealth played key role in determining a person’s overall health. Thus he usedcavities has his barometer to determine a subject’s health.


This life journey was the product of him losing his childfrom a tooth infection.


His findings were from the 1920s – 1930s where the old andmodern worlds collided. There were native populations that adopted westerndiets while other stayed true to their ancestors.


A consistent pattern emerged when natives would stick totheir diet. The cavity rates were less than 1%. In some places, it would be aslow as 0.0% (that’s not a typo).


When they adopted a western diet that included sugar, heavycarbs, processed foods the cavity rate would go up to 40% and some places ashigh as 70%.


Dr. Price observed natives with high cavity counts also hadother health problems ranging from facial and dental deformities, tuberculosis,arthritis, child birth issues, etc.

Lastly, Dr. Price advocated for quality food sources. Forhim, grass fed and finished cattle supplied the best quality meat and butter interms of nutritional dentistry.


Meat is not meat. There is a difference. I try to find the closest to grass fed and finished. Organ meat popularity is growing. You can find organic chicken liver, feet and heart at Whole Foods.


You also have companies such as White Oak Pastures and U.S.Wellness Meats that will ship you their steaks ands organ meats ranging from beef, pork, goat, sheep, etc. and their farming practices are either sustainable or regenerative or both. By now,I do hope you realize how the food source for your meat is very important.


Farmers’ markets are an excellent starting point to find a local rancher that promotes pasture-raised meat.


Yes, I know. Some people just don’t like the taste of organ meat.


Start with liver and there are recipes that direct you to soak the liver in milk to help mitigate the “liver” like flavor.


The traditional liver and onions recipe is my go to meal.Liver mixed with onions helps balance out the taste.


For those willing to try this recipe make sure you sauté your onions so they caramelize. It enhances the onion’s flavor and the main way to counteract the liver taste. Plate the dish and then finish it off with a quality sea salt and you’re set!


If eating organ liver is still not your thing there is a great alternative – Organ Supplements. But not all of them are the same, just like your organ meat, the source is vital.


You want to get a supplement that has minimal or no fillers and source their meat from pasture raised cattle – this would be grass fed and finished.

There are not too many brands that fall into this category.The one would be our own, the One Earth Health Organ Complex. The meat is sourced from pastures raised, GMO and Hormone free cattle in New Zealand. So they are grass fed and finished.


And based on food analysis by the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) between livers from the US and New Zealand, the vitamin content in New Zealand liver had the following:


Vitamin B12 - New Zealand liver has 43% more than U.S. based liver. 

Vitamin B5 - New Zealand liver has 44% more than U.S. based liver.

Iron - New Zealand liver has 72% more than U.S. based liver. 

Thiamin (Vitamin B1) - New Zealand liver has 96% more than U.S. based liver. 

Vitamin A - New Zealand liver has a whopping 459% more than U.S. based liver. 



I hope you enjoyed this article and got value out of it. I am always revising and updated this page. I know there’s a lot of information here I did my best to make it enjoyable to read.